English has borrowed from other languages, and many of those borrowed words and phrases are worth knowing because they frequently turn up in academic contexts. If you learn these words and phrases now, you avoid being confused or puzzled when they appear in texts or lectures.
Note: When these words appear in print, they are often underlined
or placed in italics. This indicates that they are still considered foreign words. Since they do come from other languages, you should look these phrases up in your dictionary to learn the correct pronunciation just in case you want to use them in a conversation.
literally, "toward this"; refers to something devised or created for a particular situation or purpose.
literally, "to infinity"; suggests that someone or something will continue indefinitely.
literally, "from the subsequent"; indicates that reasoning is based on experience, that one may argue from facts to general principles.
a priori: literally, "from the previous causes"; indicates that reasoning is
based on theories or general principles rather than experience or factual knowledge.
bona fide: literally, "in good faith"; means that something is genuine or
in loco parentis: literally, "in place of a parent"; indicates that some group or
institution substitutes for absent parents.
in toto: literally, "in sum" or "as a whole"; indicates that something should
be taken totally or altogether.
prima facie: literally, "on first appearance"; refers to a first impression formed
before any closer inspection.
non sequitur: literally, "it does not follow"; points to an irrelevant or illogical
conclusion or statement.
quid pro quo: literally, "something for something"; indicates an equal exchange.